The Environment

Surface phenomena in the course of exploitation

Surface damages due to subsidences have numerous forms:
  • damage to and destruction of buildings
  • damage to traffic network and utility lines
  • damage to water courses and fishponds
  • subsidence and dissipation of water from wells
  • land slides

A consequence of deep mining is the deformation of the ground above the mined-out panels. The size and extent of surface changes is directly related to the thickness of coal seems, the mined-out panel size and the intensity of the mining operations. It also depends on the structure and other conditions.

For example, in the Ostrava region, subsidence of up to 20 metres was recorded. For example, the Silesian-Ostrava Castle has subsided by 14 metres since the coal mining started. 

Subsidence is even more pronounced in the Karviná region where high coal seams are mined, locally by more than 40 metres. The total subsidence of the St. Peter of Alcantara Church near the former Gabriela Mine is 33 metres.

Changes on the surface do not end with the termination of mining activities; their effects die away for some time. Any effects induced by coal mining including their dying out can be forecasted to a great extent based on the Budryk-Knothe calculation method.